My home uses a hot-water-to-hot-air converter system for heat. Recently, the heat upstairs stopped working. I called in an HVAC contractor, and within about 10 minutes he identified the problem and had my upstairs heating system working again.
Munro echoed these points when I asked for their take on what makes the coolant bottle so special, but also mentioned that the Superbottle could also help reduce vehicle weight, and it could help with serviceability.
The Joie Tourist pushchair (below) launches in January 2019 and weighs less than 6kg. It has a one-step, one-hand fast fold.
Juergen Korn, a researcher with the Yukon Housing Corporation, said HRVs work well in northern climates, but notes there is a learning curve associated with their use. He said often people move into a new house and don’t know how to operate their systems.
The non-domestic compliance guide for Part L of the Building Regulations, which is concerned with conservation of fuel and power, also sets targets for air distribution systems. The document offers specific fan power targets for different systems, whether they are centralised, local or utilise heat recovery. However, it may be that there are many types of air distribution systems in use in the building other than the ventilation itself, including chilled water fan coils, washroom extract, or variable air volume (VAV) systems and these need to be factored into the calculations.
The recovery of heat is crucial, for without it fresh air delivered into the space would be a similar temperature to the air adjacent to the inlet and the rejected air would be similar to the air in the building. The energy held by indoor air has already been conditioned by the air conditioning system employed within the space, therefore any air simply removed from the space is financially uneconomical, since the replacement air must be air conditioned again.
When exploring some of the Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) concerns in relation to HVAC systems, Tanmoy Kr. Choudary, R&D and technical manager at Maico Gulf, says that we should first work with building owners or consultants to establish the project requirements with respect to IAQ requirements, such as if ASHRAE/ANSI Standard 62.1-210 has enough information related to IAQ.Choudary says: “Many HVAC systems are equipped with either an enthalpy wheel or plate heat exchanger, but the ideal scenario is to have ‘zero’ exhaust air transfer ratio (EATR), which is possible with an enthalpy wheel through a purge sector or with an increase in differential pressures between supply air & exhaust air.”He lists down four major aspects to come up with concrete solutions for acceptable IAQ:• Various IAQ-related factors can interact with other factors, for example, return air percentage, outdoor air quality, climate condition throughout the year, number of occupants etc. • How the ventilation air is mixed with the cooling/heating air? Other HVAC design issues that may affect many other systems including building pressurisation & humidity.• Commissioning the building using ASHRAE guidelines 0-2005. It should be an IAQ-quality focused process.• For continuous improvements, it is recommended to have an IAQ audit at regular intervals with a project to include an assessment of possibilities.He adds: “Most of the FAHU/ERV manufacturer follows Eurovent EN1886 standards for best leakage and filter bypass factor with Eurovent/AHRI-certified HRW/PHE (heat exchanger); however, with poor maintenance the cross contamination increases drastically with an unacceptable IAQ situation.“Also, ERV/FAHUs should work simultaneously with the cooling/heating system to handle dehumidification design conditions, as moisture accumulation in certain spaces within the building is sometimes inevitable.”But are HVAC systems optimised to strike the balance between promoting good IAQ and managing energy costs? Choudary says that with multiple renowned certification authority (Eurovent/AHRI) it is very easy to get a heat exchanger with best effectiveness for requested sizes. The challenge is to get the best IKW through the installed motor, which is only possible with lower internal pressure drop and optimised external duct resistance. With effective supply air and return air duct layout we can easily achieve the best optimum energy consumption. But the main challenge is to combine the MEP contractor’s design with the equipment manufacturer’s best applicable products.Also, operation and maintenance training must be a priority to ensure good health of a building. He says: “Providing extra space within the HVAC systems for enhanced filtration usually can be achieved at a very low cost and will result in better IAQ and lower ROI (return of investment) and operating cost.”According to Choudary, several studies on Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) can be referred to where we find that more than 75% of IAQ issues is related to HVAC systems.Numerous studies place average productivity loss due to poor IAQ between 3% to 7% and individual productivity losses of 33%.The following checklist can be referred to improve the product design:• Incorporate the best effective heat exchanger in FAHU/ERV design. A Eurovent/AHRI certified heat exchanger can always add value to the whole recovery percentages.• The best filtration stages, and lower pressure drop with higher arrestance can definitely reduce the motor needs to overcome less resistance to deliver the required airflow to the system, thereby reducing installed KW (IKW) of the unit.• The important parameter is to design the lowest filter leakage factor through the filter frame; an ideal frame design can reduce the contamination percentage drastically.• Unit construct should be referred to a standard, for example, EN1886 can be applied for lower leakage factor through the casing.
Meanwhile, many ice rink operators are using ammonia as a primary refrigerant coupled with a brine or glycol as a secondary refrigerant. CO2, both in direct and indirect (secondary) systems, is increasingly being employed by ice rink arenas in North America and Europe.
Separately, the Lands Department is also expected to open up more geospatial data to facilitate smart city development.
Microelectromechanical systems, or MEMS for short, are a combination of electronic and mechanical hardware. Every MEMS sensor consists of tiny silicon structures that are machined into a silicon wafer with a special type of etching process. For example, under a microscope, an acceleration sensor’s structures look like gossamer combs arranged in opposing and interlocking patterns. Some of these fine comb-like structures measure a mere four micrometers across – that is just a tenth the size of an ant’s leg. The force of a car accelerating or braking squeezes these combs. This changes the electrical voltage between the individual teeth, transforming a mechanical force into an electrical signal. A control unit interprets this signal and processes it further as a digital value. Bosch developed the manufacturing process behind MEMS technology nearly 25 years ago. It still forms the basis of today’s production runs, which take up to 14 weeks and entail several hundred steps. These tiny sensors are manufactured under exacting cleanroom conditions, as even the smallest airborne particles would disrupt their production. One cubic foot of air – that is about 30 liters – may contain no more than one particle weighing half a microgram. To put this into perspective, that equates to a cherry pit in Lake Constance – or 360 million bathtubs.
Given that previous generations of synthetic refrigerants – CFCs, HCFCs and HFCs – have prompted environmental regulations, “it makes no sense to use a fourth-generation synthetic molecule,” said Marc-André Lesmerises, a CO2 refrigeration pioneer who is president and founder of Carnot Refrigeration, Trois-Rivières, Quebec.
By comparison, conventional fire alarm systems (and there are still many out there) consist of zones with multiple smoke and heat detectors connected in such a manner that when one goes into alarm, there is no way to immediately know which one did it without inspecting the entire lot. But even that doesn’t always work because there’s often one person in the crowd that pushes the reset button, resetting the system and the offending detector cannot be identified.
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