예약
  • 거창사상 마사지
  • 카지노사이트
  • cpod.xyz
  • 봉화신천 모텔
  • 거창출장안마↤24시출장샵₪거창티켓 썰[거창역삼동 마사지]⊥『거창한국야동 안마방』☀거창출장샵안내⇘거창콜걸⇌거창해운대 아가씨ロ거창마사지 남친•거창근육통 마사지

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    군산출장안마
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    거창출장안마♪24시출장샵♞거창티켓 썰[거창콜걸]✪『거창인천 출장 마사지』◦거창안마방 왕가슴녀♗거창문산 마사지ω거창동남아 마사지⇙거창속초 마사지↔거창fc 마사지

    The governments of more than 190 nations 고흥안산 조건 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    거창출장안마┫24시출장샵⇇거창티켓 썰[거창고현 안마방]☁『거창부산 마사지』유거창처음 안마방↑거창동해 안마방✌거창대만 호텔 마사지ο거창일산 마사지κ거창상하이 마사지

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    거창출장안마┥24시출장샵┈거창티켓 썰[거창호치민 호텔 마사지]卐『거창최음제 마사지』◘거창출장코스가격ⓥ거창하이퐁 마사지»거창일본 마사지 avμ거창청량리 안마방➺거창신설동 안마방

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 진주출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    거창출장안마❄예약금없는출장샵━거창티켓 썰[거창조건 출장]┩『거창조건 카톡』モ거창셀프 마사지♭거창다낭 에덴 마사지┿거창송탄 안마방ヒ거창호구포 마사지◎거창타이마사지 서비스

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 안산안마방 한국 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    거창출장안마┏24시출장샵┓거창티켓 썰[거창냉정 안마방]⊿『거창부산 출장』↚거창아프리카tv 마사지➳거창안마방 파워배드W거창영화 히든 토렌트↕거창제천 안마방“거창성대 마사지

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 카지노사이트 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    거창출장안마거창아비게일 마사지

  • 구미타이 마사지 팁
  • 거창동남아 안마방
  • 거창출장안마
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    거창출장안마↺예약▷거창티켓 썰[거창지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성 전용 마사지]⚘『거창라페 안마방』ヘ거창사가정 안마방▧거창광주 모텔 추천⇩거창출장 만남 카톡↱거창검빛 경마 검색┳거창휘성 안마방

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 경상북도국 노 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 천안출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    창원출장샵
    보령부산 하단 출장 카지노사이트.xyz 청주경산 안마방
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 원주출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    거창출장안마☞예약╳거창티켓 썰[거창프리마호텔 마사지]✌『거창경마 시간』➚거창울산 안마방 추천╩거창광교 마사지☣거창안마방 발기↪거창여성전용 안마방☍거창상동 안마방

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 예천마사지 방법 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    거창출장안마√24시출장샵◆거창티켓 썰[거창아주대 안마방]⇩『거창다이소 마사지』◆거창탑 클래스⇆거창마사지 롤러✄거창존슨즈 베이비 오일 마사지ツ거창호치민 리버티 마사지 가격↺거창잠실 안마방

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 대전출장안마 .

    산청스웨디시 마사지 정의
    곡성서초 마사지 서울출장안마 부평청주 안마방 가격
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    거창출장안마☪예약☠거창티켓 썰[거창마사지 샤워기]“『거창논현동 안마방』↓거창푸켓 크리스틴 마사지✄거창제주시 연동 마사지✗거창얼굴 마사지 기계ⓞ거창진주 안마방⇐거창코스프레 안마방

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 바카라사이트 .

    거창출장안마●예약금없는출장샵☽거창티켓 썰[거창안마방 아영이 토렌트]◐『거창방콕 마사지 비용』☠거창안마사❃거창근육통 마사지▣거창안마방 정보▥거창안마방 하드▲거창영종도 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 수원출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 청주마사지 앱 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    거창출장안마↽출장부르는법◢거창티켓 썰[거창장안동 안마방]╬『거창출장 선입금』┵거창장전동 마사지┏거창목포 여관☆거창구로디지털단지 안마방◑거창출장서비스レ거창출장 사기

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    거창출장안마▪24시출장샵♪거창티켓 썰[거창해피 출장]ェ『거창안마방 미시』☍거창마사지 대딸♪거창서혜부 마사지 란➚거창성남 마사지↮거창진영 안마방╚거창출장서비스

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 무주제주 연동 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 울산출장안마 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 부산출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 의정부출장녀 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 평택출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    거창출장안마╩예약금없는출장샵►거창티켓 썰[거창카톡]┞『거창안마방 긴밤』♐거창출장 오피▽거창제주도 안마방 추천☇거창여성전용 마사지♦거창출장소이스♕거창일본 마사지 야동

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 카지노사이트 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 대전출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 수원출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    거창출장안마✄예약☐거창티켓 썰[거창오산 마사지]♝『거창천안 안마방』⊥거창마사지 썰✉거창안마방 가는법↦거창남친이랑 마사지»거창멜라니☁거창안마방 나이대

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    양양변비 마사지
    gvya.xyz 수원건전 마사지 광주출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    거창출장안마┱예약금없는출장샵↺거창티켓 썰[거창다리 마사지]↪『거창대만 마사지』➠거창여성 마사지╪거창편두통 마사지✖거창감성마사지 뜻➶거창포항 안마방ω거창세븐 안마방

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.거창출장안마거창마사지 홈런♦거창모텔 tumblr⇞『거창모텔 티켓』거창출장만남☠거창천안 출장✍거창해피 출장➺거창대구 타이 마사지╔군산출장안마예약금없는출장샵거창춘천 안마방⇠거창후쿠오카 마사지➠〔거창안마방 얼굴〕거창아침에 안마방♣거창마사지 오일╦거창창원 봉곡동 안마방♟거창엄마와 딸 마사지⇩거창출장안마영동안마방 20살거창안마방 몰 카▪거창러시아 마사지◥《거창예약금 없는 출장》거창제천 마사지レ거창슈얼 마사지█거창귀두 마사지◆거창질 마사지✪거창라오스 마사지 2차☎거창중리동 안마방☁〔거창송원장 마사지〕거창태국마사지 불법マ거창기흥구청 마사지ξ거창위례 마사지☼거창타이 마사지 단속▒거창안산 고잔동 마사지✣거창암사동 마사지⇩‹거창커플 마사지 방법›거창문산 마사지ⓔ거창후쿠오카 마사지⇡거창석계 안마방╟거창눈붓기빼는 마사지♮거창하당 마사지✔거창마사지 초대남♥﹛거창산본 마사지﹜거창순천 중국 마사지♤거창안와상융기 마사지♡거창창동 안마방♪ 거창주안 여관▨예약금없는출장샵목포안마방 만화출장부르는법거창구미 안마방囍거창서양 마사지 야동☂‹거창대만 안마방›거창발안 모텔♨거창50m❈거창타이 마사지 단속◦거창스포츠 마사지 자격증┩거창출장안마거창출장안마천안출장샵거창마사지 커뮤니티거창중국 마사지거창여고생 마사지거창포항 타이 마사지거창출장안마거창부평 안마방✏거창로드샵 단속┳{거창안마방 감염}거창해변 마사지╓거창마사지 구인♞거창비엔티엔 마사지▒거창여자 모텔┑영주일본 마사지 몰카

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

    Topics